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OVAL TEAM President Richard Nixon with National-Security Adviser Henry Kissinger (right) and Kissinger’s deputy, Alexander M. Haig Jr., 1972.

OVAL TEAM President Richard Nixon with National-Security Adviser Henry Kissinger (right) and Kissinger’s deputy, Alexander M. Haig Jr., 1972.

 

In an adaptation from their forthcoming book, Vanity Fair contributing Nike Air Pippen II Club Púrpura / Negro Basketball Zapatos For Sales - Hombres&Mujer T400006133,editor Douglas Brinkley and historian Luke A. Nichter draw on 3,700 hours of President Nixon’s White House tapes to convey the inner workings of Nixon’s action-packed first term. Over the last several years, the tapes—many of which were muffled and, at times, indecipherable—have been cleaned up, pored over, and painstakingly transcribed. The result—excerpted below—includes conversations with Nixon’s national-security adviser Henry Kissinger, Chief of Staff Bob Haldeman, and chief domestic aide John Ehrlichman is a verbatim narrative of a pivotal period in Nixon’s presidency that portrays him as a geopolitical strategist, a crisis manager, and a duplicitous paranoid. 

 

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The Union Army encouraged this love, issuing soldiers roughly 36 poundsNike Blazer High Premium Swan / Nuevosprint-Smoke- rojo Basketball Zapatos Outlet En línea - Hombres&Mujer U300006413, of coffee each year. Men ground the beans themselves (some carbines even had built-in grinders) and brewed it in little pots called muckets. TheyNike Legend Low Negro/Retro Casual Zapatos Outlet En línea - Hombres U100008708, spent much of their downtime discussing the quality of that morning’s brew. Reading their diaries, one can sense the delight (and addiction) as troops gushed about a “delicious cup of black,” or fumed about “wishy-washy coffee.” Escaped slaves who joined Union Army camps could always find work as cooks if they were good at “settling” the coffee – getting the grounds to sink to the bottom of the unfiltered muckets.

For much of the war, the massive Union Army of the Potomac made up the second-largest population center in theNike Dunk High Premium Negro / Negro-Anthracite Basketball Zapatos En línea Store - Hombres&Mujer H500006709, Confederacy, and each morning this sprawling city became a coffee factory. First, as another diarist noted, “little campfires, rapidly increasing to hundreds in number, would shoot up along the hills and plains.” Then the encampment buzzed with the sound of thousands of grinders simultaneously crushing beans. Soon tens of thousands of muckets gurgled with fresh brew.

Confederates were not so lucky. The Union blockade kept most coffee out of seceded territory. One British observer noted that the loss of coffee “afflicts the Confederates even more thanNike Air Footscape ven 360 Pig Pink / Dark Pink Casual Zapatos Outlet Genuine - Hombres&Mujer Q700008389, the loss of spirits,” while an Alabama nurse joked that the fierce craving for caffeine would, somehow, be the Union’s “means of subjugating us.” When coffee was available, captured or smuggled or traded with Union troops during casual cease-fires, Confederates wrote rhapsodically about their first sip.

The problem spilled over to the Union invaders. When Gen. William T. Sherman’s Union troops decided Nike Dunk Hi Premium Alpha Culture Club Birch/Baroque marrón-Baroque marrón Basketball Zapatos Outlet Us En línea - Hombres&Mujer Q400006606,to live off plunder and forage as they cut their way through Georgia and South Carolina, soldiers complained that while food was plentiful, there were no beans to be found. “Coffee is only got from Uncle Sam,” an Ohio officer grumbled, and his men “could scarce get along without it.”

Confederate soldiers and civilians would not go without. Many cooked up coffee substitutes, roasting corn or rye or chopped beets, grinding them finely and brewing up something warm and brown. It contained noNike Dunk High Premium Tweed Tweed / Orange Blaze - Negro - Versity Púrpura Casual Zapatos En línea Store - Hombres&Mujer Z600008632, caffeine, but desperate soldiers claimed to love it. Gen. George Pickett, famous for that failed charge at Gettysburg, thanked his wife for the delicious “coffee” she had sent, gushing: “No Mocha or Java ever tasted half so good as this rye-sweet-potato blend!”

But more than that, coffee was simply delicious, soothing – “the soldier’s chiefest bodily Nike Dunk Low Croc Reflector Negro/Negro-Turquoise Basketball Zapatos Sale Baratas - Hombres&Mujer T700006944,consolation” – for men and women pushed beyond their limits. Caffeine was secondary. SoldiersNike Capri Slip Tweed/Light Chocolate-Sail Casual Zapatos Offer - Mujer W400008548, often brewed coffee at the end of long marches, deep in the night while other men assembled tents. These grunts were too tired for caffeine to make a difference; they just wanted to share a warm cup – of Brazilian beans or scorched rye – before passing out.

This explains their fierce love. When one captured Union soldier was finally freed from a prison camp, he meditated on his experiences. Over his first cup of coffee in more than a year, he wondered if he could ever forgive “thoseNike Eclipse II Casual Zapatos Outlet Shop - Mujer S400008681, Confederate thieves for robbing me of so many precious doses.” Getting worked up, he fumed, “Just think of it, in three hundred days there was lost to me, forever, so many hundred pots of good old Government Java.”

So when William McKinley braved enemy fire to bring his comrades a warm cup – an act memorialized in Nike KD2 Negro / Photo Azul-Team Orange Basketball Zapatos En línea Store - Hombres&Mujer F400007416,a stone monument at Antietam today – he knew what it meant to them.

Follow Disunion at twitter.com/NYTcivilwar or joinNike Terminator Low Premium Fdd Tp / Light Bn-NwSprnt-Lqd Lm Basketball Zapatos Price - Hombres&Mujer Z700007794, us on Facebook.

Jon Grinspan is a National Endowment for the Humanities fellow at the Massachusetts Historical Society.